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Why are the Colors of the German Flag Black, Red, and Gold?

Why are the Colors of the German Flag Black, Red, and Gold? Luetzow Free Corps and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn provide some clues.

It is not clearly documented how the three colors black, red and gold became a part of the German flag. However, we will take you back through the early undocumented history until today.

German Flag Color Symbolism Theories
• There are different interpretations regarding the meaning of the German flag colors, black, red, and gold.
• One interpretation argues it was inspired by a song with a text of, "Powder is black, blood is red, golden flickers the flame.”
• Another interpretation suggests "black and gold" was the color of the old empire, and red symbolized the blood spilled in the fights for freedom.
• Similarly, another interpretation goes on to say the order of the colors symbolizes German history, "Through night (black) and blood (red) to the golden light of freedom.”
• Others see the red color as a symbol of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, which, in the early German history, crowned emperors and kings.

According to the rules of heraldry (the design of coat of arms), the German flag would not exist in its familiar form. In order to ensure the identifiability of a coat of arms at greater distances, heraldry distinguished colors and metals, with yellow representing gold. This means that colors in a coat of arms cannot touch as they have to be separated by metal. In this respect, the German flag color order would have to be black-gold-red.

German Flag Speculated Beginnings
The earliest legend of the flag dates back to the time of the Napoleonic Wars, specifically 1813-1814, and a group of volunteer resistance fighters, known as Lützow Free Corps, who took any civilian clothing they could find and dyed them uniformly black. With gold buttons, red cuffs, and black uniforms, on volunteer fighters from all over Germany and Austria, it is thought this is where the inspiration of the flag colors came from.

Another theory is that Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, a German gymnastics educator, designed a black, red, and gold flag in 1812. Jahn, an outspoken nationalist, had also participated in the liberation war against Napoleon, and the black, red and gold colored flag he designed was allegedly carried in battle.

Documented History of the German Flag
Napoleon still ruled during the early 19th century, but the German Campaign battle in 1813 liberated the German states from the domination of the French and led to a reorganization of Germany in 1814. The German Confederation was founded with 37 individual states and four free cities under the presidency with Austria. This new form of government, where the new nation was controlled by a different country, had many critics longing for a unified, self-governed Germany.

Among these critics was the fraternity of the German city Jena, which had their fraternity flag colored black, red and gold. This flag became a symbol of protest against the paternalism of Austria. Among other things, the German citizens demanded the freedom of the press and freedom of opinion. To restore order, the Austrian government finally gave in and an all-German parliament was established in Frankfurt at the so-called Frankfurt Parliament in the Paulskirche. Black, red and gold was declared the official flag of Germany.

During the Nazi regime, which started in 1933, the National Socialists first supplemented the German flag with their swastika and later used a flag with the swastika on a red background.

After the end of the Nazi dictatorship and WWII, it was obvious to return to the flag which had become a symbol of freedom for Germany, even though Germany was divided into East and West. To distinguish itself from West Germany, the East German government added a coat of arms to their flag in 1959. The coat of arms showed a hammer for the working class, the circle for the thinkers, and a garland of corn for the peasants. With the end of the GDR in 1989 this variation disappeared. Since then, the simple "black-red-gold" scheme applies to the entire country.

The German Flag Today
Even today, the German flag or it's national colors are infrequently seen in Germany compared to many other European countries. Remembering the use of a flag as a propaganda tool during the Nazi regime is still present in the heads of the German people. In recent years, however, there has been a cautious resurfacing national pride, which makes it normal for Germans to claim their country and to show the national colors, especially at international sporting events, like the 2006 World Cup, which was hosted by Germany, or after winning the 2012 World Cup.

2006 World Cup in Berlin, photo by Alexander Husing, flickr user azrael74 with Attribution 2.0 Generic

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Photo Credits: 1890 illustration of Prussian Lützow's Free Corps by Richard Knötel (1857-1914). | 1852 lithograph of Friedrich Ludwig Jan | 2006 World Cup in Berlin, photo by Alexander Husing, flickr user azrael74 with Attribution 2.0 Generic .


What You Will Discover at the Deutsches Filmmuseum

Exterior of the Frankfurt Deutsches Filmmuseum

If you love movies, I have a museum for you. I had initially put off seeing the Deutsches Filmmuseum because I had the preconceived notion that I should be a film buff to appreciate it, but I was so wrong. This museum is actually a behind the scenes look at how movies are made, and explains the technological advances that culminated in the invention of film, from wooden peep show boxes to photograhy.

The museum is very modern, has interactive stations throughout to help explain the concepts, and there’s English translations on almost all of the signage. Don’t have all day? Even better, because you can easily make it through the entire permanent collection in a morning.

Exploring the Pre-history of Film & Cinema at the Frankfurt Deutsches Filmmuseum

Filmic Vision | 1st Floor
The first floor was historically-focused on the 16th-19th centuries, and explained various inventions and precursory technology that made the invention of film possible. The Deutsches Filmmuseum really excels at explaining how the antiquated apparatuses worked, and contextualized why it inspired further curiosity and invention. You're able to experience firsthand many of the historic gadgets on display. For example the museum sets up the (pictured below) peep show exhibit so you can understand how it works by viewing the layout of the interior of the box, as well as look through the viewing hole as intended.

Frankfurt Deutsches Filmmuseum Exhibit on Historic Peep Shows

Exhibit showing an 1868-1869 Cylinder Anamorphosis at the Frankfurt Deutsches Filmmuseum

The floor ends triumphantly with introducing projection technology in a complete theater room showing black and white silent film.

Filmic Narrative | 2nd Floor
Up the stairs, the exhibits move into present day breaking down the elements of a movie; acting, sound, images, and editing.

Green Screen Fun on the 2nd floor of the Frankfurt Deustches Filmmuseum

The interactive station fun continues with a gigantic green screen that you can experience, and a mood lighting lab where you can recreate historic lighting setups from classic scenes using yourself as the subject.

Mood Lighting Interactive Station at the Frankfurt Deutsches Filmmuseum

Sprinkled throughout this floor are movie props, scripts, and storyboards from iconic movies that will give you goosebumps. The collection even has a Darth Vader helmet used in the original Star Wars trilogy!

Animation Cells, Movie Props, Costume Design and More Exhibited at the Frankfurt Deutsches Filmmuseum

Film Room Exhibit at the Frankfurt Deutsches Filmmuseum

In the editing exhibit I was amazed to see a half painting, where the top was a hilly landscape painting, and the bottom half was just black...because that’s where they edited in real film footage of a boat on the water!

For a finale, four projection screens were assembled forming a U-shape with four different movies playing at the same time that all had similar visual elements together, like all chasing scenes, all walking scenes, all green monsters, but only one movie soundtrack playing.

Be sure to check out the current temporary exhibit. When I visited they had a Shaun the Sheep exhibit that included the real claymation sculptures and sets.

Exterior of the Frankfurt am Main Deutsches Filmmuseum

Planning your Trip to the Deutsches Filmmuseum
The museum is open Tuesday through Sunday from 10:00 a.m. until 6:00 p.m. Wednesday the museum stays open for 2 additional hours, closing at 8:00 p.m. Tickets start at 6 Euros with some discounts available. Click here for more information.

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In the News: Americans Traveling to Europe Might Need a Visa?

On March 3rd, 2017 there was a story in the news reported by TIME Money and also in Reuters World News regarding a change in visa law for US Citizens entering Europe. Could this impact your summer travel plans for Europe? We take a look at the stories as this change would affect us, as well as many of our readers.

Americans Traveling to Europe Might Need a Visa? Burg Hohenzollern statue overlooking the clouds

The United States currently requires a visa from citizens of five European Union countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, Romania and Cyprus. Citizens from all other European Union countries can enter the US without a visa, but still have to fill out the ESTA form of the US Customs and Border Protection.

In a non-binding motion on March 3rd, the European Parliament in Luxembourg gave the European Commission two months to review and take legal measures regarding visas for Americans traveling to Europe, unless the United States offered reciprocity to ALL European Union citizens. The United States and the European Union have a reciprocal visa agreement, which also describes that this agreement can be temporarily suspended, if a “third state” does not grant it to ALL European Union countries. If no solution is found within two months, Americans might have to file for a entry visa starting May 2017 to enter Europe.

Now, before you panic and reach out to your embassy: This was a non-binding motion, meaning it is a suggestion made by the European Parliament to the European Commission. For this visa requirement to take effect, all countries of the European Union would have to approve the move, which could take years.

Currently, American citizens can travel to Europe without a visa as long as their stay does not exceed 90 days. With over 12 million Americans traveling to Europe in 2016, such a regulation would hurt the tourism industry. Also, far fewer American tourists travel to destinations with visa restrictions like Croatia and Cyprus than, for instance, Italy and Germany, which makes the EU Commission less likely to budge on this subject.

We will keep you posted if there is any significant change to this story. If you want to get the latest information about where your US passport can take you, check the U.S. Department of State website by clicking here.

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What to Consider When Renting a Car in Germany

What to Consider When Renting a Car in Germany

For exploring Germany, you have two options; public transport or renting a car. There is an abundance of different car options and rental stations, some in airports, next to train stations, and even downtown locations in large cities. No matter whether you want to rent a small car to navigate big city parking, a family car for a group of four, or a fast car to try on the Autobahn, Germany will have the car you are looking for. This article will help you navigate the process. Let’s start with some basics to help you plan.

Where to Book a Rental Car in Germany
You’re going to want to try to book online with one of these larger companies, since they have the most offices in Germany and also a large network of European offices. This will most likely get you faster service or car replacement in case there is something wrong during your rental. Booking with smaller companies like Thrifty or Dollar will make car replacements a bigger ordeal since these smaller companies only have a few offices in large cities or at large airports.

The largest car rental companies in Germany are:
• Avis (336 stations)
• Budget (300 stations)
• Enterprise (200 stations)
• Europcar (579 stations)
• Hertz (300 stations)
• Sixt (500 stations)

I would recommend making a spreadsheet so you can easily compare offers, and how much each company charges for fees, and more. If you’re still deciding whether a rental car is a good choice for your trip, you can keep train and subway ticket prices in the same spreadsheet to give you perspective before deciding.

Fees You’ll Want to Know About, and Avoid If Possible
• VAT | Value Added Tax of 19% is included in most rental quotes. This is a mandatory tax, much like the sales tax in the United States.
• Premium Station Fee | To keep fees low, try to avoid picking up your rental car from an airport or train station, as there is an additional Premium Station Fee (convenience fee) of 22-23%. This fee also applies to all extras you add to the car, like a GPS or car seats for children. The Premium Station Fee only applies for pick up. If you return the car at an airport or train station, there are no added fees. Try to avoid picking up your rental car up on a Sunday or holiday. Most non-premium rental offices are closed, leaving you with only an airport or train station pickup, guaranteeing the aforementioned additional Premium Station Fee.
• GPS Rental Fee | The cost for a GPS is usually between $5-$15 per day, which can add up if you have a car for more than a few days. If you decide to wing it without a GPS, download an offline map of the area you are traveling in via the Google Maps app on your smartphone or tablet. GPS navigation systems may only have enabled the map for the country you rent them in. If you are crossing borders, make sure to inquire about a GPS that has maps for ALL the countries you are traveling to.
• Automatic Transmission | Cars with an automatic transmission are rare and cost extra.
• One Way Rental | If you pick up your rental in Germany and return it in another country (or vice versa), there will be added charges, that can often be higher than the rental charge itself. Try to avoid crossing borders for the return of a rental car.
• Unlimited Mileage? | Depending on the provider, only a certain number of kilometers are included.
• Additional Driver | Extra drivers cost extra money, usually $5-$25 per day. Try to stick with one driver if you are trying to save money. You can ask if spouses are exempt from the additional charge.
• Punctuality is Paramount | Return the car on time, there usually is no grace period (see our article about German punctuality). Also, the billing for rental cars is per 24 hour period. Pick up the car at 1pm and return it a week later at 3pm, these two extra hours are going to cost you a full day rental fee.

Do You Need Rental Car Insurance in Germany?
No one wants to pay for it and we figure out we should have paid for it once it is too late. Boring subject, but here are some pointers regarding rental car insurance in Germany.

All German car rental companies are required to protect themselves and their customers for damage on any property and persons outside your vehicle. The portion that remains which you are responsible for is theft or damage to the rental car, which is collision (CDW) and theft insurance. This insurance ranges from $10-$40 per day and carries a high deductible of $1,000 or more. Want to avoid paying that? Here is how, and it will surprise you.

Many people do not realize that by booking a rental car with a credit card, that you may already have collision and theft insurance coverage. Most credit card agreements offer collision and theft insurance automatically with a low or zero deductible as a benefit to their customers. Before you book your rental, check out the rental car insurance coverages of the different credit cards you already have, and book the rental with the credit card that offers the best coverage. Ask your credit card provider about glass, undercarriage and interior coverage, which might not be covered.

This is also a good time to check if your credit card charges for foreign transaction fees. This can be a costly 3% premium on all purchases in Germany, so try to use a card that does not charge you foreign transaction fees. When you’ve chosen which credit card you want to use, ask for an emailed copy of the insurance certification, or log in to your account and look for it in the benefits section. Keep the document handy on your electronic device and/or printed when you approach the car rental counter, you might be asked for it.

At the rental counter, present the credit card of your choice and make sure to decline the collision/theft coverage offered by the car rental company. Don’t not sign any contract unless you are sure that you have declined their collision/theft coverage, otherwise your credit card provided coverage is invalidated! If you are unsure, you can add above your signature “I hereby decline optional CDW and theft insurance.”

And if you are looking to take a Porsche or high-end car onto the Autobahn, be advised that most high-end luxury cars need two credit cards presented and some contracts also require the purchase of an extra collision/theft insurance through the rental company only. Check your credit card provider for limits and, if you plan on renting a high end car, ask your credit card provider for extra coverage options.

Get Familiar With the Fine Print
You are entering a legal contract, so make sure you read all the fine print before clicking the Book Now button on the website. Yes, I know it is a lot of text, but you have to know the details to really have peace of mind. Invest the time now, which will hopefully mean no (costly) surprises later.

What to Bring or Ask When Picking Up a Rental Car in Germany
• Bring a copy of your car rental voucher (printed or electronic)
• Bring a copy of your car rental reservation confirmation (printed or electronic)
• Bring the credit card you booked the car with
• Decline the collision (CDW) and theft insurance (or write “I hereby decline optional CDW and theft insurance”).
• Ask for a contract copy in English, if the person at the counter does not automatically give you one.
• Check if the rental car uses regular gasoline or diesel fuel
• Record any scratches or imperfections on the car with the rental company in writing. Take detailed pictures or a video of the car at the pickup location.

Driving on the Autobahn
Germany is the only country in the world without a general speed limit on its highways, the legendary Autobahn.

Nevertheless, an advisory speed limit 130 km/h (81 mph) is agreed upon, unless otherwise posted. Driving on the Autobahn is serious business and requires your full attention at speeds well over 100 miles per hour. Abide by the general rule, that slower traffic stays to the right, the left lane is reserved for fast traffic. If you are going slow in the left lane, German drivers will flash their headlights, tailgate and honk at you… a lot.

In Case of a Car Accident in Germany
Call 112 from your cell phone, which has to be logged into a German mobile network (T-Mobile / Vodafone / EPlus / O2) in order to get an ambulance or police to record the accident or for first aid. If this is not an option, ask people around you to use their handy, which the Germans associate with a cell phone.

Do You Need an International Driving Permit in Germany?
Get an International Driving Permit (IDP) from AAA or National Auto Club (NAC), the two only licensed retail outlets for the IDP. It is not required for a car rental in Germany, but “technically” all German car rental companies “recommend” to carry an IDP, which is a translation of your regular driver’s license. Make sure to bring your driver's license along with the IDP, since the IDP only works in conjunction with your regular license.

Returning the Rental Car
• If you have to return your rental with a full gas tank (read the fine print of your contract), make sure to get gas as close to the drop-off station as possible and keep the receipt from the gas station as proof.
• Remove all personal items from the car.
• Take one final video or photos of the car in case there’s a dispute over scratches or the state the car is left in.
• Get final paperwork/breakdown of charges from the rental company.

We're working on a making this article a printable PDF checklist available for our email subscribers! Look for the announcement in the upcoming newsletters.

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If you enjoyed this article, or these topics sound interesting to you, you'll love our weekly newsletter. You'll receive a free Germany Packing list for signing up, and you'll receive each week's newest posts every Friday. Thank you for reading!


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Thank you For Reading! Denise & Sebastian | Photo by Irene Fiedler